The Principles for Advancing Outdoor Recreation and Conservation


During the 2014 SHIFT Festival, The SHIFT Roundtable on Land Conservation, Wilderness Advocacy & Human-Powered Outdoor Recreation, which sought to develop stronger partnerships between natural allies for the benefit of conservation, identified the reduction of division among such allies as a key to successful conservation efforts.

In June 2015, The Conservation and Recreation Summit, held in Grand Teton National Park at The Murie Center, used this observation as the starting point for a conversation between fifteen outdoor recreation enthusiasts, conservation advocates and public land managers who had convened to explore ways to better protect America’s outdoor heritage.

The participants, who came from the three interest groups in roughly equal proportion, agreed that a set of principles that served as a unified framework for natural allies would reduce internal conflict and increase success in the protection of our public lands, waters and wildlife. At the Summit’s conclusion, the participants therefore proposed six Principles for Advancing Outdoor Recreation and Conservation.

In 2016, Colorado Parks and Wildlife adopted what they referred to as the “SHIFT Principles,” adding a key component that acknowledged the role private lands play in full-landscape solutions. In September 2017 the Principles were updated to recognize the importance of two other elements omitted in the original Principles: urban areas, where most Americans live; and the effort to make outdoor recreation, conservation and public lands relevant and accessible to all Americans.

Why These Principles?

Outdoor recreation in natural settings is and always has been an indispensable part of conservation. Active engagement with the outdoors has produced some of the country’s most inspiring conservation leaders. Our natural places and the recreational activities they provide are essential to us mentally, spiritually, and physically. By immersing people in the natural world, outdoor recreation builds support for conservation of the places we come to love and helps to develop the next generation of stewards. Outdoor recreation offers a remarkable opportunity to reinvigorate conservation efforts by engaging younger generations and diverse populations.

Outdoor recreation adds economic stability, diversity, resilience, and prosperity to communities across the country while creating a broader constituency for protecting our natural resources. Outdoor recreation is a sustainable enterprise, the third largest economic sector in the United States, and fosters human health and well-being.

When unmanaged or poorly managed, outdoor recreation can adversely affect our public lands, as well as the quality of experiences and the numerous benefits they provide. The rapid growth of recreational use on public land, and the evolving nature of this use, often raises concerns that the quality of the lands and waters on which this recreation depends is being degraded. It also stresses the integral relationship between conservation and recreation.

The set of principles that follow, which has been informed by numerous historic and ongoing efforts on the issue, aims to guide collaboration among outdoor recreationists, conservationists, and public land managers and serve as a starting point for collective, strategic conversations and actions to protect our lands, waters and wildlife.


1. Outdoor recreation and conservation require that a diversity of lands and waters be publicly owned, available for public access, and well-stewarded. The uniquely American public land heritage is a privilege and a birthright. Stewardship of our public lands – including waters and wildlife – is our responsibility.

2. Recreation and conservation need each other. Both are beneficial to local economic well-being, quality of life and personal health. Outdoor recreation helps people understand the importance of healthy, intact ecosystems, which builds support for their protection and stewardship. Conservation protects the natural resources and wild places upon which outdoor recreation depends. Responsible recreation – which fosters and is informed by a conservation ethic while promoting diverse, inclusive and next-generation engagement – is essential for future protection and use of our public lands.

3. The future of our public lands depends on support from all Americans. Outdoor recreation and conservation must reflect, respect and value the demographic and cultural diversity of our country in order to engage a coalition of stakeholders broad enough to insure the health and wellbeing of our public lands. This requires that public lands be inclusive, relevant and accessible to all, regardless of ability, race, socioeconomic status, gender identity, or sexual orientation, and include the 85% of Americans who live in urban areas as well as the private landowners whose lands provide connectivity and full-landscape solutions.

4. Outdoor users are responsible for avoiding and minimizing the impacts of their use across the places they recreate and the larger landscape. All recreation has impact. Ethical outdoor behavior that demonstrates respect for lands, water, and wildlife and that respects the value of connecting all people to the outdoors is critical and must be developed in all users and in future generations.

5. Proactive, professional planning and management, combined with public education, is necessary to care for the land and provide a diversity of quality recreation opportunities. Active public engagement in crafting solutions is necessary to ensure solutions are fair and can be effectively implemented. To make better decisions about which activities are best suited for which locations and provide a spectrum of opportunities to serve diverse interests, a broad landscape approach is necessary in order to meet both conservation and recreation needs.

6. Physical, biological and social science must inform the management of recreation. Management decisions should be grounded in the best available scientific information to ensure the protection of wild areas and the sustainability of resources while maintaining and enhancing the quality of outdoor recreation experiences.

7. Stable long-term funding and creative management solutions are essential to protect the environment and support outdoor recreation. Reliable and consistent funding is essential to protect natural resources and manage outdoor recreational experiences. Funding levels must be proportionate to the economic and public health benefits of outdoor recreation and a healthy environment. Land management agencies need adequate funding from federal, state, and local sources. This must be supplemented by (but not replaced by) new and non-traditional funding from private and non-profit sources.


Below is a brief summary of the engagement process for soliciting input on the Principles for Advancing Outdoor Recreation and Conservation. Feedback was received from July 10, 2015, until the document was finalized in late September of the same year. Principle 3, “The future of our public lands depends on support from all Americans,” was added in 2017 to better reflect the importance of equity and inclusivity.

Conservation and Recreation Summit Participants

The following people participated in The Murie Center’s Conservation Recreation Summit in Grand Teton National Park in June 2015. This group produced the initial draft of the Principles, reviewed input, and guided the development of the current version.

  • Molly Absolon, journalist, Jackson Hole News and Guide
  • Peter Aengst, Senior Director, Northern Rockies Region, The Wilderness Society
  • Christian Beckwith, Director, SHIFT
  • Craig Benjamin, Executive Director, Jackson Hole Conservation Alliance
  • Scott Bosse, Director, Northern Rockies, American Rivers
  • Lauren Dickey, Program Director, Friends of Pathways
  • Whit Fosburg, President and CEO, Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership
  • Kate Gersh, Associate Director, The Murie Center
  • Paul Hansen, Executive Director, The Murie Center
  • Steve Kallin, Refuge Manager, National Elk Refuge, United States Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Josh Kleyman, Director of Development, Teton Science School
  • Vickie Mates, Chief of Interpretational and Partnerships, Grand Teton National Parks, National Park Service
  • Linda Merigliano, Recreation Wilderness Program Manager, Bridger Teton National Forest, US Forest Service
  • Gary Pollock, Management Assistant, Grand Teton National Park
  • Luther Propst, Chair, The Outdoor Alliance; board member, The International Mountain Bicycling Association
  • Aaron Pruzan, Recreation Business Owner; Former Board Member, American Whitewater
  • Amber Wilson, Environmental Quality Coordinator, Wyoming Outdoor Council
  • Facilitated by Robyn Paulekas, Mediator and Program Associate, Meridian Institute

Additional Feedback

In addition to the Summit participants, an early draft was circulated to a diverse set of thought leaders on conservation and recreation. Seventy people weighed in on the initial draft. Their feedback was carefully considered and is reflected in this document.

  • Lise Aangeenbrug, Executive Director, Great Outdoor Colorado
  • Luis Benitez, Director, CO Office of Outdoor Recreation
  • Domenic Bravo, Administrator, Wyoming State Parks, Historic Sites & Trails
  • Kristen Brengel, Senior Director, Legislation & Policy, National Parks Conservation Association
  • Jeffrey Brooks, Sociocultural Specialist, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
  • Caroline Byrd, CEO, Greater Yellowstone Coalition
  • Bob Byrne, Bob Byrne Consulting
  • Graciela Cabello, National Director, Latino Outdoors
  • Franz Camenzind, Project Coyote
  • Len Carlman, Executive Director, Snake River Fund
  • Amanda Carey, Director, Mountain Bike the Tetons
  • Michael Carrol, Senior Director of National Partnerships, The Wilderness Society
  • Steve Chase, United States Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center
  • Rose Chilcoat, Associate Director, Great Old Broads for Wilderness
  • Dan Chu, Director, Our Wild America Campaign, Sierra Club
  • Aaron Clark, International Mountain Bike Association
  • Susan Clark, Professor, Yale University
  • Adam Cramer, Executive Director, Outdoor Alliance
  • Elyse Curley, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society
  • Bob Duncan, Executive Director, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries
  • Chris Enlow, Keen Footwear
  • Tom Franklin, Senior Director of Science and Policy, Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership
  • Wendy Francis, Interim President, Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative
  • Rachel Franchina, Recreation Team Lead, US Forest Service
  • Jose Gonzalez, Founder and Director, Latino Outdoors
  • Keith Harmon, Former Director, Wildlife Management Institute
  • Matt Hogan, Assistant Regional Director, United States Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Bob Irvin, CEO, American Rivers
  • Dave Klein, Professor emeritus, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Randy Kreil, Retired Division Chief, North Dakota Game and Fish Wildlife
  • Ben Lamb, consultant
  • Mike Leahy, Conservation Director, Izaak Walton League of America
  • Gretchen Long, Conservationist
  • Don MacLauchlan
  • Steve Matous, Executive Director, Outward Bound
  • Richard McCabe, Former Vice President, Wildlife Management Institute
  • Chester McConnell, Former Southeastern Representative, Wildlife Management Institute
  • Jason McGarvey, Communications and Outreach Manager, Virginia Outdoors Foundation
  • Brad Meiklejohn, Alaska State Director, The Conservation Fund
  • Mark Menlove, Executive Director, Winter Wildlands Alliance
  • Peter Metcalf, President, Black Diamond
  • Matt Miller, Outdoor Writers Association of America; Science Writer, The Nature Conservancy
  • Mark Newcomb, Teton County Commissioner
  • Dan Nordstrom, CEO, Outdoor Research; Steering Group Member, Outdoor Access Working Group, Outdoor Industry Association
  • George Ohrstom, Conservationist and Philanthropist
  • John Organ, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Brad Peterson, Director, Utah Office of Outdoor Recreation
  • Randy Rasmussen, Back Country Horsemen of America
  • Bob Ratcliffe, Program Chief Conservation and Outdoor Recreation, National Park Service
  • Paul Sanford, National Director for Recreation Policy, The Wilderness Society
  • Roger Semler, Wilderness Stewardship, National Park Service
  • Emily Stifler, Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation
  • Gregg Treinish, Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation
  • Chas Van Genderen, Montana State Parks, National Association of State Park Directors
  • Jon Roush, Former EVP, The Nature Conservancy, Former CEO, the Wilderness Society
  • Rodger Schlickheisen, Former CEO, Defenders of Wildlife; Former Chair, Partnership Project
  • Larry Selzer, President, The Conservation Fund
  • Will Shafroth, President, National Parks Foundation
  • Gary Silberberg, Jackson Hole conservation philanthropist
  • Mark Singleton, Executive Director, American Whitewater
  • Beverly Smith, Vice President, Volunteer Operations, Trout Unlimited
  • Don Steinbach, Professor Emeritus, Texas A&M University; Executive Director , Texas Chapter of the Wildlife Society
  • Dan Svedarsky, Professor, University of Minnesota
  • Jenn Thomsen, Professor, University of Montana
  • John Turner, Former WY State Senator Director of USFWS, Pres. Conservation Fund, Asst. Sec. of State
  • Francisco Valenzuela, US Forest Service
  • Jeremy Vesbach, Director, Sportsmen’s Outreach, Conservation Lands Foundation
  • Sidney Woods, Natural Resource Planner, Bridger Teton National Forest, US Forest Service
  • Doug Walker, President, American Alpine Club
  • Dana Watts, Executive Director, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics
  • Dave Zentner, Minnesota hunter/angler/conservationist

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